|Equation||(# participants) x (% individuals getting treatment solely because of the program) x (# QALY increase) x ($ QALY)|
|Explanation||This metric estimates the impact of birth control access and use on lifetime health, estimated in terms of quality-adjusted life years (QALY). The benchmark study evaluated 13 methods of contraception among women aged 15 to 50 years with respect to differences in health gains among other health outcomes. The study compared these methods with a hypothetical reference case of nonuse of contraception. The reversible contraceptive methods evaluated were: combination oral contraceptives (OCs); transdermal contraceptive patch (patch); vaginal ring; male condom (condom); diaphragm; copper intrauterine device (IUD); levonorgestrel-releasing IUD; depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA); estrogen–progestin monthly injectable; and two behavioral methods, periodic abstinence and withdrawal; as well as two permanent methods, tubal sterilization, and vasectomy. The general metric is based on the average gain in QALY from the 13 contraceptive methods in the study however, the metric can be modified to estimate the benefits of a specific method.|
Number of participants: Reported by program.
Percentage of individuals receiving care due to program: [26%]. This is based on the percentage of women aged 18–49 in Minnesota who are at risk of unintended pregnancy and do not use contraceptives (Douglass, et al., 2017).
QALY increase: [0.13]. This is based on the average gain in QALY from 13 contraceptive methods reported by Sonnenberg, et al. (2004).
$ value per QALY: [$50,000]
Benefits are then discounted to present value based on the average age of participation to life expectancy.
|References||Douglas-Hall, A., Kost, K., and Kavanaugh M. (2017) State-Level Estimates of Contraceptive Use in the United States, 2017. New York: Guttmacher Institute, 2018.|
Sonnenberg, Frank A., et al. (2004). Costs and net health effects of contraceptive methods. Contraception, 69(6), 447-459.